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The Flora of Cuba is rich and diverse; boasting more than 6500 native species of flowering plants and tropical fruit trees, most notably in the mangroves, making it is the largest concentration of diverse vegetation in the Caribbean. Sugar cane and the Royal Palm, Cuba's national plant, are among the most commonly cultivated species on the Island. Due to it's rich diversity, the region of Moa, north of the province of Holguin, is referred to by scientist as the "Garden of Cuba. The Sierra del Rossario has been declared a Biosphere and Reserve and promises to be a very special reserve. Approximately 25% of the Island consists of pines, mahogany, and tobacco plantations. The best soil in the world for cultivating tobacco can be found in the Valley of the Rivers. Mangroves flourish on the Southern Coast while rocky cliffs dominate the North.

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The Fauna of Cuba is abundant, with 42 species of mammals, 350 species of birds, 121 species of reptiles, 46 species of amphibians, 2947 species of mollusks, 900 species of fish, 185 species of butterflies, 7493 species of insects, and 1300 species of spiders (none poisonous). In the mangroves of the south, there are the typical aquatic species, while in the north there are impressive colonies of baby flamingos. There are species endemic only to Cuba, considered to be the smallest in the world, such as the smallest spider, the smallest bat,the smallest butterfly, and the smallest mollusks. Primitive animals such as the rombifer crocodile, almiqui, the manjuari, (cuban gar) and the selenodon, all of whom are considered to be living fossils, can be found in this sheltered environment. The National System for Environmental and Natural Resources Management is functioning on the Island to conserve and protect the species.

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